What is bootstrapping stack overflow

By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I don't see the class card-block mentioned in the reference documentation, but I have seen this class used in a few examples.

This is the officially reference:.

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The card-block class was used on an Alpha Release version of Bootstrap 4 and doesn't exists on the current release. You can read the documentation of that class on the link: card-block on v4-Alpha. There says that:. The building block of a card is the. Use it whenever you need a padded section within a card. Like I already mention, this class do not exist on the currently v4. You can check with the browser inspector tool on the next example and see that there is no CSS style related to the card-block class but there exists CSS style related to, like an example, the officially documented card-header or card-body classes.

Link to official documentation about cards : Bootstrap Cards. Learn more.

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What is the Bootstrap card-block class? Ask Question. Asked 2 years ago. Active 8 months ago. Viewed 6k times. Shidersz Active Oldest Votes. There says that: The building block of a card is the.

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what is bootstrapping stack overflow

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I used to apply K-fold cross-validation for robust evaluation of my machine learning models. But I'm aware of the existence of the bootstrapping method for this purpose as well.

However, I cannot see the main difference between them in terms of performance estimation. The only thing I could figure out that in case of bootstrapping one could artificially produce virtually arbitrary number of such subsets while for CV the number of instances is a kind of limit for this.

But this aspect seems to be a very little nuisance. As the name cross validation suggests, its primary purpose is measuring generalization performance of a model. On contrast, bootstrapping is primarily used to establish empirical distribution functions for a widespread range of statistics widespread as in ranging from, say, the variation of the mean to the variation of models in bagged ensemble models.

The leave-one-out analogue of the bootstrap procedure is called jackknifing and is actually older than bootstrapping. With a similar total number of evaluated surrogate models, total error [of the model prediction error measurement] has been found to be similar, although oob typically has more bias and less variance than the corresponding CV estimates.

There are a number of attempts to reduce oob bias. Yes, there are fewer combinations possible for CV than for bootstrapping. But the limit for CV is probably higher than you are aware of. Bootstrapping is any test or metric that relies on random sampling with replacement. It is a method that helps in many situations like validation of a predictive model performance, ensemble methods, estimation of bias and variance of the parameter of a model etc.

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It works by performing sampling with replacement from the original dataset, and at the same time assuming that the data points that have not been choses are the test dataset. We can repeat this procedure several times and compute the average score as estimation of our model performance.

Cross validation is a procedure for validating a model's performance, and it is done by splitting the training data into k parts. We assume that the k-1 parts is the training set and use the other part is our test set. We can repeat that k times differently holding out a different part of the data every time. Finally, we take the average of the k scores as our performance estimation.

Cross validation can suffer from bias or variance.

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Increasing the number of splits, the variance will increase too and the bias will decrease. On the other hand, if we decrease the number of splits, the bias will increase and the variance will decrease. In summary, Cross validation splits the available dataset to create multiple datasets, and Bootstrapping method uses the original dataset to create multiple datasets after resampling with replacement. Bootstrapping it is not as strong as Cross validation when it is used for model validation.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I have tried many variants found on web, like flex-first and whatnot. If you want to change order on md and larger sizes you can use order-md-this is provided by bootstrap. It looks like, if you want to change order only on md size you will have to define normal order on one larger size Fiddle.

It's also possible to use the flex- helper classes to solve this issue. This solution allows you to reverse the order without the order count on the columns. The flex-direction is now reversed by default md and will be overriden on the lg breakpoint. Learn more. Bootstrap 4, how reverse the order of columns? Ask Question.

Asked 3 years, 2 months ago. Active 6 months ago. Viewed 52k times. Zim k 71 71 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. Patrioticcow Patrioticcow 23k 68 68 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. Nenad Vracar Nenad Vracar 97k 13 13 gold badges silver badges bronze badges.

Tim Vermaelen Tim Vermaelen 5, 1 1 gold badge 20 20 silver badges 36 36 bronze badges. This is exactly what I was looking for!

I'm working on setting up a website with Japanese, and I was going for a traditional right-to-left layout on larger screens, but then push those columns into rows on smaller width devices in the other order, so it still reads top-down. Should be noted that you can also use. Easiest solution will be:. Thorben Schmitt Thorben Schmitt 1 1 silver badge 2 2 bronze badges. For Bootstrap v4.

Chris Andersson Chris Andersson 1, 8 8 silver badges 14 14 bronze badges. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. It only takes a minute to sign up. I am reading about bootstrapping and am confused because the term is used so much in tech specially bootstrap itself as the CSS framework.

Is this correct? In the general sense, "bootstrapping" is a process through which a complex system is set up using a much simpler system. A bootstrap system the simpler system is in itself inherently incomplete.

what is bootstrapping stack overflow

Bootstrapping an OS "booting it" includes getting the computer's firmware BIOS, or equivalent to run a simple program which is sometimes located on a fixed location on disk, which in turn starts more complex initialisation routines see first and second stage bootloaders. Bootstrapping a compiler is done by compiling a simple compiler that can handle a subset of a language in which the full compiler is written, possibly in several successive steps. From the Wikipedia article on Bootstrapping :.

Tall boots may have a tab, loop or handle at the top known as a bootstrap, allowing one to use fingers or a boot hook tool to help pulling the boots on. The saying "to pull oneself up by one's bootstraps" was already in use during the 19th century as an example of an impossible task.

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A bootstrap is the first program a computer runs on power up. This is usually the current BIOS flashed onto the motherboard.

The bootstrap then hands over to the OS boot sector program on the boot drive. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top.

What is bootstrapping? Ask Question. Asked 3 years, 6 months ago.

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Active 8 months ago. Viewed 14k times. If so, then bootstrapping is boot loading? Brian Brian 81 1 1 gold badge 1 1 silver badge 5 5 bronze badges. This seems to be more than one question wrapped up in one. Perhaps you could edit to make a single question more explicit, and leave the others for possible later posts?

Active Oldest Votes. From the Wikipedia article on Bootstrapping : Tall boots may have a tab, loop or handle at the top known as a bootstrap, allowing one to use fingers or a boot hook tool to help pulling the boots on.

Related question: Which man page describes the process of a computer turning on? And what - apart from outdated links - is Unix specific here? Does it have anything to do with my answer? You seem to want to comment on the question rather than on my answer, alternatively write your own answer. Dominic Cerisano Dominic Cerisano 99 3 3 bronze badges.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I keep seeing "bootstrapping" mentioned in discussions of application development. It seems both widespread and important, but I've yet to come across even a poor explanation of what bootstrapping actually is; rather, it seems as though everyone is just supposed to know what it means. I don't, though. Near as I can figure, it has something to do with initialization tasks required of an application upon launch, but I could be completely wrong about that.

Can anyone help me to understand this idea? In computing, a bootstrap loader is the first piece of code that runs when a machine starts, and is responsible for loading the rest of the operating system. In modern computers it's stored in ROM, but I recall the bootstrap process on the PDP, where you would poke bits via the front-panel switches to load a particular disk segment into memory, and then run it.

Needless to say, the bootstrap loader is normally pretty small. An example of bootstrapping is in some web frameworks. You call index. The term "bootstrapping" usually applies to a situation where a system depends on itself to start, sort of a chicken and egg problem.

In that case, bootstrapping refers to a way of breaking the circular dependency, usually with the help of an external entity, e. See on the Wikipedia article on bootstrapping. There is a section and links explaining what it means in Computing.

It has four different uses in the field.

what is bootstrapping stack overflow

Here are some quotes, but for a more in depth explanation, and alternative meanings, consult the links above. Rather than the user downloading the entire app, including features he does not need, and re-downloading and manually updating it whenever there is an update, the user only downloads and starts a small "bootstrap" executable, which in turn downloads and installs those parts of the application that the user needs.

Additionally, the bootstrap component is able to look for updates and install them each time it is started. Alex, it's pretty much what your computer does when it boots up. Initially, the small program in your BIOS runs. That contains enough machine code to load and run a larger, more complex program. It has its own lengthy Wikipedia article on bootstrapping statistics. Boot strapping the dictionary meaning is to start up with minimum resources. The boot strap code will be run from the BIOS.

Generally it is a jump instruction to the set of instructions which will load the Operating system to the RAM. The destination of the Jump is the Boot sector in the Hard Disk. IMHO there is not a better explanation than the fact about How was the first compiler written? Bootstrapping has yet another meaning in the context of reinforcement learning that may be useful to know for developers, in addition to its use in software development most answers here, e.

From Sutton and Barto :. Widrow, Gupta, and Maitra modified the Least-Mean-Square LMS algorithm of Widrow and Hoff to produce a reinforcement learning rule that could learn from success and failure signals instead of from training examples.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. Bootstrapping is the process Laravel takes to combine the necessary bits in the framework together to be able to process and handle the functionality thrown at the system. Inside the bootstrap folder you will find a few files: autoload.

I will try my best to simplify Laravel's Bootstrapping process. Some terms to understand before we focus on bootstrapping process:. Service Container - holds different components which can be used in your application. Facades - Laravel has lots of features and helpers.

These are loaded into service container. Facsdes makes it possible to access these features without going through service container, and can be accessed directly. Middleware - is a code executed on each request. For example, setting up the session. Middleware is required by each request. Service Providers - are classes required by your application. These are not loaded on each request, but only when the service they provide are actually needed.

When a web page is requested, the request first goes to index. This file does very important things.

First it auto-loads all the classes used in your application. After that it sets up the laravel application i. One of the first thing laravel framework does is - it creates the service container. At this point the service container is empty. After that framework creates kernal. Kernal loads all the middleware required by the application.

One of the most important task of the kernal, there after, is to load all the service providers i. This array defines which components are loaded into your service container. These components can be accessed via facades.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Data Science Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for Data science professionals, Machine Learning specialists, and those interested in learning more about the field. It only takes a minute to sign up. Apparently, in reinforcement learning, temporal-difference TD method is a bootstrapping method. On the other hand, Monte Carlo methods are not bootstrapping methods. Bootstrapping in RL can be read as "using one or more estimated values in the update step for the same kind of estimated value".

It is a bootstrap method because we are in part using a Q value to update another Q value. Notably, this target value does not use any existing estimates from other Q values at all, it only uses a set of observations i. Those are are most likely wrong, and the update system can be unstable as a whole because of too much self-reference and not enough real data - this is a problem with off-policy learning e.

Q-learning using neural networks. Without bootstrapping, using longer trajectories, there is often high variance instead, which, in practice, means you need more samples before the estimates converge. So, despite the problems with bootstrapping, if it can be made to work, it may learn significantly faster, and is often preferred over Monte Carlo approaches. You can compromise between Monte Carlo sample based methods and single-step TD methods that bootstrap by using a mix of results from different length trajectories.

In general, bootstrapping in RL means that you update a value based on some estimates and not on some exact values. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. What exactly is bootstrapping in reinforcement learning?

Ask Question. Asked 2 years, 10 months ago. Active 2 years, 2 months ago. Viewed 11k times. What exactly is bootstrapping in RL? What is a bootstrapping method in RL?

Active Oldest Votes. Neil Slater Neil Slater I cannot understand why it should since Q s',a' is just an arbitrary guess which then distorts the estimate for Q s,a. Also, why does MC have a high-variance as compared to TD? Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook.

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